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Кабiнет 45

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Поточний час: 25 черв 2018, 13:53

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   [ 1 повідомлення ] 
Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: Заняття № 21
ПовідомленняДодано: 26 лист 2014, 18:58 

Зареєстрований: 17 черв 2014, 17:23
Повідомлення: 620
Заняття № 21

Тема: Внесок українських вчених у розвиток науки і техніки. Є. Патон, В. Вернадський. Past Continuous.

Методичні рекомендації:

1. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст "Science of XVIII century"

2. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст "Science of 19 century"

3. Перевірте свої знання. Виконайте тести на знання науки та науковців.

4. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст про одного із перелічених в тексті вчених сучасної України.

5. Виконайте вправу на вживання Past Continuous.

1. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст "Science of XVIII century"

Since the end of XVIII century, the tragical epoch in the history of Ukraine was observed, when that consistent policy of deprivation (послідовна політика позбавлення) not only statehood, but also national and cultural achievements of the last centuries was finished.

Gradually medicine freed itself from religious influence. There were first textbooks with the statement of medical knowledge bases. Certain successes were reached in the struggle against epidemic diseases.

The mathematics also started to gain the practical direction. Let's say, that elements of practical mathematics, materials on trigonometry, civil and military architecture were included in I.Falkovsky's textbook.

In XVIII century in Ukraine there were historical works written as “Cossack annals” (Козацькі літописи"). The graduates of Kyiv Mohyla Academy G.Grabyanka and S.Velichko were the authors of those works. Those creations, meant transition from chronological events to their judgments (судження), phenomena in the Ukrainian historiography became noticeable. As far as economic, military and diplomatic documents, were the sources for authors, such creation could be named annals very conditionally.


The well-known Ukrainian historians P.Simonovsky, N.Bantysh-Kamensky, M.Berlinsky worked in certain period. The last one was the first researchers of Kyiv history.

Many Ukrainian scientists worked at universities, spiritual academies, polytechnic schools, technical institutes and other higher schools, in the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Military Academy. Teachers learnt Polish, German, Russian, and won glory to those states, where they worked.

Sofia Kovalevskaya, born as Krukovskaya, was professor of Stockholm University. Very few people know that she came from Poltava region, and was the relative of Kosach family. Her husband M.Kovalevsky, sociologist of the world glory (світової слави), came from Kharkiv region. The mathematician M.Ostrogradsky, who came from Poltava region and whose name entitled some mathematical formulas, also received the great glory. K.Ushinsky- the well-known teacher; literature historian D.Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky.


Originally from the Ukraine were also academicians of Russian (All-Union) Academy of sciences: D.Petrushevsky, the historian; I.Grabar, grandson of A.Dobryansky; the critic, professor A. Yassinsky - the Slavist; philosopher of the P.Yurkevich, academician of Russian, Czech, Parisian and Ukrainian Academies of sciences; V.Vernadsky, founder of geochemistry and biogeochemistry whose name entitled the mineral - vernadit were Ukrainians.


2. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст "Science of 19 century"

The science development in Ukraine was difficult and inconsistent (суперечливий). Neither Russia, nor Austro-Hungary weren't interested in carrying out of scientific researches in Ukraine, and perceived progressive ideas with suspicion (з підозрою сприймали прогресивні ідеї).

However Ukrainian scientists brought the great contribution to the science development.The Science development in Ukraine was promoted by the numerous scientific organisations which appeared in 70-90th years: scientists (in Kharkiv, Kyiv and Odesa), mathematical (in Kharkiv), physical and mathematical (in Kyiv), historical-philological in Kharkiv, Novorossiysk universities, scientific - of T.Shevchenko in Lviv, etc.

Science development in Ukraine was closely connected with higher educational institutions, mainly with universities. Scientific schools were formed there.

At Kharkiv university A.Lyapunov who created the general theory of movement stability headed mechanics chair (загальна теорія стійкості руху).


Kyiv mathematician M.Vashchenko-Zaharchenko concluded a number of textbooks by which many generations studied. The chair of physics of Kyiv University was headed by M.Avenarius, who was the founder of one of first scientific schools of molecular physics (молекулярна фізика) in Russia. M. Rilchikov, one of the founders of X-ray diffraction and radiology in Russia worked in Kharkiv from 1880 till 1902.

Development of chemical science is connected with N.Beketov who headed the chair at Kharkiv University from 1855 till 1887 and founded the bases of new scientific branch - metallothermy (металлотермія) and new direction - physical chemistry. By its development geological sciece is obliged to the activity of K.Feofilaktov, who based Kyiv school of geology. I.Shmalgauzen became the founder of paleobotany.

Fruitful activity in the field of biological science in Novorossiysk University was developed by outstanding scientist I.Mechnikov, who together with M.Gamali opened in Odessa the first in Russia and second in the world bacteriological station.


At the same university the founder of Russian physiological school I.Setchenov headed physiological laboratory in 1871-1876. The works of talented Kyiv surgeon Y.Shimanovsky, and the founder of histophysiology N.Hrzhonshchevsky (Хржонщевський) , the founder of native experimental hygiene of V.Subotin were included in the gold fund of medicine.

Strong ideological struggle accompanied the development of humanities. Y.Kovelsky, I.Kotlyarevsky, V.Karazin, P.Grabovsky defended ideas of economy, science, and education development, and the necessity of moral society perfection.

The historical science was enriched with a number of N.Kostomarov's creations. He wrote such books "Hetmanate of Vygovsky", "Hetmanate of Yury Khmelnitsky", "The ruin", "Mazepa", "Pavel Polubotok", etc.


Lazarevsky published the researches of the Left-bank Ukraine history, V.Ikonnikov- fundamental work "The experience of Russian historiography". V.Antonovich wrote numerous works on history, archeology, ethnography, in particular "Researches about Haidamaks under the dicuments of 1700-1768", "Archeological finds and excavation" in Kyiv and the Kyiv province.

Despite severe prosecutions of the Ukrainian language, the big works on literature and folklore research were carried out by P.Zhitetsky, A.Potebnya, M.Petrov. I.Franko made the big contribution to the research of history and theory of Ukrainian literature. Folklore studies and ethnography were replenished by the works of M.Sumtsov, P.Chubinsky, M.Dragomanov, B.Grinchenko and others.

3. Перевірте свої знання. Виконайте тести на знання науки та науковців.

Тест № 1. Добавте до імен вчених ( колонка А) галузь їх науки (Б)


1- Mykola Amosov

2-Serhii Koroliov

3- Illia Mechnikov

4- Yevhen Paton

5- Volodymyr Vernadsky


a - space travel

b - heart

c - bridges

d - disease

e - noosphere

Тест № 2. Прочитайте тексти. Перевірте відповіді на тест № 1.

Mykola Mykhailovych Amosov (1913-2002) was a Ukrainian doctor, heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast. He is probably best-remembered for his inventions to overcome heart defects.


He also introduced lung surgery to Ukraine and his research helped improve the treatment of lung disease. Furthermore, he worked in the field of cybernetics: the study of how actions in one part of a system affect other parts of the same system. This led him to put forward theories on how different parts of the body function, including the brain. His work in this area brought him international recognition. He also managed to find time to be a novelist.

Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov (1907-1966) has been called the father of astronautics. He was the leading engineer during the 1950s and 1960s when he worked on the Sputnik and Vostok space projects.


Korolyov’s interest in aviation started early and by the time he was eighteen he had designed his own glider. It was not until the 1950s that he became interested in the space industry. He came up with the idea of sending a satellite into space. At the same time, US scientists were beginning to have the similar ideas. Korolyov managed to persuade the Soviet authorities that his team could be the first to do it.

Following this, he was able to pull off several firsts in the ‘space race’. He was working on plans to send men to the moon when he died in 1966. His association with space continues as there is a crater on the moon named after him.

Illya Illich Mechnikov (1845-1916) took an interest in natural history from an early age and used to lecture his younger brothers and friends on this subject. He first started working in marine biology. Later he became interested in immunology and took up the study of how organisms fight disease.


This area was of personal interest to Mechnikov because his first wife died of tuberculosis and his second almost died of typhoid fever – both common diseases at the time. Through his research, scientists gained a much better understanding of how cells protect organisms. He is most famous for his research on the immune system. He won many awards for his work and in 1908 he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Yevhen Oskarovych Paton (1870-1953) played a major role in developing the way bridges were built and designed.


He did this by looking into the ways metals can be welded together. From his research he developed a procedure to work out how strong joints of bridges and other structures would be. In 1934, Paton founded the Electric Welding Institute, later named after him. Then, in 1953 a bridge was built in Kyiv using many different aspects of his technology.

Volodymyr Ivanovych Vernadsky (1863-1945) was a Ukrainian and Soviet mineralogist and geochemist.


He is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology. His ideas of noosphere were an important contribution to Russian cosmism. He also worked in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War, where he founded the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (now National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). He is most noted for his 1926 book The Biosphere. In this book he hypothesized that life is the geological force that shapes the earth.

Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, VNLU (Ukrainian: Національна бібліотека України імені В.І. Вернадського) is named after this famous scientist. It is the main academic library and main scientific information centre in Ukraine. It is located in the capital of the country – Kyiv. The library contains about 15 million items.


Тест № 3. Прочитайте тексти тесту № 2 та напишіть правильні прізвища вчених.

1. He believed his team was able to beat American scientists. ________________

2. He discovered how the body protects itself against illness. _________________

3. He found ways of making structures stronger. __________________

4. He produced theories on how the brain works. _________________

5. He wrote books. __________________

6. He built an aircraft. ________________

7. He taught his friends when he was a child. _______________

8. There is a library named after him. ___________________

9. There is an institute with his name. _________________

10. He first popularized the concept of the noosphere. ________________

Тест № 4. Напишіть реченні із даними словами.

1. thought of _______________

2. began ________________

3. calculate _______________

4. manage successfully ________________

5. researching _________________

Тест № 5. Проектна робота. Напишіть статтю про одного із українських вчених, що даються нижче у списку. Розбийте статтю на 3 чи 4 підтеми по наступним пунктам.

Зображення Oleksandr Shalimov

Зображення Mykola Amosov

Зображення Mykola Pyrohov

Зображення Vasyl Sukhomlynsky

ЗображенняYevhen Paton

Зображення Oleksandr Bohomolets

Зображення Vasyl Sukhomlynsky

ЗображенняOleksandr Bohomolets

Зображення Mykhailo Hrushevsky

Зображення Volodymyr Vernadsky

Зображення Victor Glushkov


Зображення  Family and early years
Зображення  Early successes
Зображення  Greatest achievements
Зображення  How he/she has contributed to scientific understanding.
Зображення  How he/she has helped people.


Mykola Amosov

heart [hɑːt] серце
surgeon ['sɜːʤ(ə)n] хірург
inventor [ɪn'ventə] винахідник
enthusiast [ɪn'θju:zɪæst] ентузіаст; палкий шанувальник або прихильник (чого-небудь)
overcome [,əuvə'kʌm] побороти, подолати
heart defect [hɑːt] [dɪ'fekt] порок серця
lung [lʌŋ] легеня
surgery ['sɜːʤərɪ] хірургія
research [rɪ'sɜːʧ] дослідження
improve [ɪm'pru:v] поліпшувати
treatment ['tri:tmənt] лікування
disease [dɪ'zi:z] хвороба
furthermore [,fɜːðə'mɔː] крім того; більше того
field [fi:ld] поле, область
cybernetics [saibə'netiks] кібернетика
affect [ə'fekt] впливати (на що-небудь)
theory ['θɪərɪ] теорія
function ['fʌŋkʃən] функціонувати
brain [breɪn] мозок
area ['eərɪə] сфера
recognition [,rekəg'nɪʃən] визнання
manage ['mænɪʤ] зуміти (зробити)
novelist ['nɔvəlɪst] автор романів

Serhii Pavlovych Koroliov

call [kɔːl] називати, звати
astronautics [æstrə'nɔ:tɪks] астронавтика, космонавтика
space [speɪs] космос
aviation [,eɪvɪ'eɪʃən] авіація
glider ['glaɪdə] планер
satellite ['sætəlaɪt] супутник
persuade [pə'sweɪd] переконувати; умовляти
authority [ɔː'θɔrɪtɪ] влада
race [reɪs] гонка
association [ə,səusɪ'eɪʃən] асоціація, зв'язок
crater ['kreɪtə] кратер

Illia Mechnikov

natural history ['næʧərəl] ['hɪstərɪ] природознавство
lecture ['lekʧə] читати лекції
subject ['sebdʒikt] предмет, дисципліна
marine biology [mə'ri:n] [baɪ'ɔləʤɪ]морська біологія
immunology [,ɪmju'nɔləʤɪ] імунологія
fight [faɪt] боротися
tuberculosis [tju:,bɜ:kjʊ'ləʊsis] туберкульоз
typhoid fever ['taɪfɔɪd] ['fi:və] черевний тиф
gain [gein] домогтися
cell [sel] клітина
protect [prə'tekt] захищати
immune [ɪ'mju:n] імунний
physiology [fizi'ɔlədʒi] фізіологія

Yevhen Paton

major ['meɪʤə] головний
major ['meɪʤə] головний
bridge [brɪʤ] міст
design [dɪ'zaɪn] проектувати, конструювати
weld [weld] зварювати
procedure [prə'si:ʤə] процедура
joint [ʤɔɪnt] місце з'єднання; суглоб
structure ['strʌkʧə] структура; будівля, споруда
welding ['weldiŋ] зварка

Volodymyr Vernadsky

mineralogist [,mɪnə'ræləʤɪst] мінералог
geochemist [,dʒɪ:əu'kemɪst] геохімік
consider [kən'sɪdə] розглядати, вважати
founder ['faundə] засновник
geochemistry [dʒɪ:ə(u)'kemistri] геохімі
biogeochemistry ['baɪə(u)dʒɪ:ə(u)'kemɪstrɪ]
radiogeology ['reɪdɪəu ʤɪ'ɔləʤɪ] радіогеологія
geology [ʤɪ'ɔləʤɪ] геологія
idea [aɪ'dɪə] ідея, думка
noosphere ['nəʊsfiə] ноосфера, частина біосфери, де взаємодіють природа і суспільство
contribution [,kɔntrɪ'bju:ʃən] внесок
cosmism космізм
civil war ['sɪvəl] [wɔː] громадянська війна
Academy of Sciences [ə'kædəmɪ ɔv 'saɪənsɪz] Академія наук
noted ['nəutɪd] знаменитий, відомий
biosphere ['baɪəsfɪə] біосфера
hypothesize [haɪ'pɔθəsaɪz] висувати гіпотезу, робити припущення
geological [ʤɪə'lɔʤɪkəl] геологічний
force [fɔːs] сила
shape [ʃeɪp] надавати форму
earth [ɜːθ] Земля
library ['laɪbrərɪ] бібліотека
item ['aɪtəm] позиція, одиниця інформації

4. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст про одного із перелічених в тексті вчених сучасної України.

The inventions in the period of independence of Ukraine

1.Nowadays from everywhere heard talks that the Ukrainian science is nothing; that there are no minds in Ukraine, which are capable to invent something valuable or just useful. People say that all the best minds for a long time working abroad, and it is difficult nowadays to call once "the best education in the world" with even just the word “education”.

However, despite all the decadent attitudes and skepticism, Ukrainians continue to come up with a variety of instruments, devices and products capable of, if not turn the world upside down, then, at least, greatly change it. Like 50-80 years ago are sometimes seemingly fantastic ideas are rejected by the modern Ukrainian government, and the scientists are forced to seek help abroad. Such story happened to Poltava native Yuri Kondratyuk (alias of Alexander Shargey), whose calculations helped the man to set foot on the moon; such story happened to the staff of the Kharkiv branch of the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute Viktor Maslov and Vladimir Shpinel, which in 1940 was working in the Office of Inventions NKO USSR and filed a patent application on uranium bomb, but it was postponed "for later". When the atomic bomb was patented by Hungarian scientist Leo Szilard, it was certainly too late (his first patent is dated 1934 year, but the bomb failed). Well, the certificate of authorship was awarded to Kharkivites... but only in 1946.


2.One of the inventions that "lost the Ukrainian citizenship" may become the latest achievements of the best or just the most enterprising minds of the country. In 2011, scientists of the Lviv Polytechnic invented flexible fabric supercapacitor (hybrid of capacitor and chemical current source) connected to the solar panel. The project was implemented under the guidance of the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, professor of physics Gregory Ilchuk.The prototype is able to charge mobile phones, but its purpose is the use on the looms. The Chinese have appreciated the idea of the very first: they have financed the invention that was considered one of top-100 inventions in 2011. It was in China the first experimental prototypes appeared, and that is where will be the first solar-powered factories.


3. One of the most significant inventions of the modern Ukraine belongs to Poltava citizens Andrew Hodurskoy and his grandfather. Unique invention raises several times the illumination of the road and it does not dazzle the drivers of oncoming traffic. The invention is compatible with any type of car body and is relatively cheap. On the invention of the author worked with from 14 to 16 years, and has gained his goal.

The secret is in the rotational angle range of the headlights relative to the road surface. The best minds of the world have long tried to solve the problem - the maximum visibility in the dark without any consequences to the eyes of passers and drivers. For example, in Japan was created the car with headlights that turn with the steering by turning the driver. And in Italy it was organized a research center devoted to this problem - the search for a new type of lighting for a car. Andrew Hudorskoy also offers lights for a maximum price of 1200 UAH (just about 150 USD). The system will increase by 2.5 times the illumination, despite the fact that the driver is able to drive even dipped headlights. For comparison, the system of adapted lights with special bulbs is 5-10 times more expensive.

4. In 2005, in Sevastopol the candidates of biological sciences Anna Pirkova and Lyudmila Ladygina (Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Department of Applied Oceanography) have found a way to grow giant oysters in the Black Sea. Their discovery created a furor in the scientific community, for which Anna Pirkova was awarded the gold medal of the World Intellectual Property Organization at the United Nations in the category "Female Inventor of the Year". The giant oyster Crassostrea gigas in nature lives in the Pacific Ocean. Ukraine already has a number of farms of this type of oyster and the Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. According to the method of women scientists the oysters grow quickly and breed well.


5. A year later, the contest of inventions and innovative ideas, organized by Philips in Kiev, the Kiev native Igor Didoshin mind flashed. In his cap (under the visor) he managed to put a MP3-player, radio transmitter and Bluetooth. The most interesting thing is that it works on solar cells, also attached to the visor. All elements of the invention are fit in a fist. His invention Igor Didoshin called “Digicap”. Radio and the player control are using the joystick. The author was hoping that within two years the invention will be affordable for everyone. But the story ended for now with the gain of the patent. The device was not running in the mass production.


6. Another invention, which saw the world on Philips show, was shelved. It is the keyboard and mouse replacements for PCs. Kharkiv native George Dernovoi may give new meaning to the word "thimblerig" ("Гра в наперстки"). His inventions are two structures that resemble thimbles that fit over your thumbs. The author has won first place in the competition in 2006. The working title of his invention is "The device for entering information for computers". The invention can use blindly even inexperienced users. That was demonstrated by invention’s "father" on the exhibition. Alas, the fate of the present invention is not yet clear - it was not necessary for Philips company, since the firm does not make computer hardware.


7.It seems incredible the invention of Poltava citizen Vitaly Zapeka – the surgical suture-zipper. No more need to remove stitches after surgery, and then to impose them again to the same location after the next surgery. The plastic zipper solves this problem.

Just imagine: no pus, no scars, no needles, no bandages, and no stitches. Zipper is glued to the body with adhesive perforated membrane (on the similarity of the patch) to the skin for the skin can breathe. The patent for the invention “Sapek” was received in 2002, but the invention become interning to medics only 4 years later.

According to the author, this suture is indispensable while accidents and while the exercises on fire fields – this zipper stops non-arterial bleedings in seconds! It is also important that people without special training, such as the victims, can use the suture-zipper with no help.

After this the victim comes to the surgeon who unbuttons the suture, and after finishing his job he zips the wound. The wound will heal smoothly and with minimal traces this way. The joint development of a young engineer started back in 1992 - after the surgeon has imposed him on the belly seam without anesthesia. Many experiments “gave life” to the six types of medical zippers for different situations: for routine and for unplanned operations; for operations with drainage or without it.

Surgeons assessed the invention - in addition to the obvious benefits to the patient, a plastic zipper-seal will reduce the operation time. According to the inventor, Ukrainian banks refused to grant a loan to the clinical trials with long-term return of money, so he went abroad - 24 countries interested in the revolutionary idea.


7. World owes Kharkiv citizen Anatoly Malykhin for another medical discovery. Scientist invented a method to analyze blood… without a blood. Electronic sensors are fixed on the belly and neck of the patient; they analyze his body, giving more than a hundred health indicators. It is noteworthy that the patent bought Ukrainian private company, and the device is made for several years in Ukraine, but it is sold abroad: you cannot found it in Ukraine. It is difficult to understand the motives of such decision. This unit is installed in almost all ambulances of China, the Czech Republic and the UAE. Hungarians recently built a plant to produce the invention of the Ukrainian, but in Ukraine they were interested only in a few hospitals across the country.


8. The M.D. Eugene Suslov learned to diagnose the cancer via the patient's saliva (слина). The method is cheap, effective, safe and painless. The result can be found in just a few hours. It is noteworthy that the Department of Intellectual Property named a new method for diagnosis of one of the 10 best inventions of Ukraine, but Ministry of Health officials are in no hurry to "pass" an innovative method, braking patent of E. Suslov. In turn, the doctor is ready to patent the method in Western Europe. It is understandable why the inventor of a hurry - a cheap way can save millions of lives. And it is hard to explain the procrastination of Ukrainian officials.


9.There is another medical achievement of Ukrainian chemists and biologists. Batumin is a remedy that quickly and effectively kills staph (стафілокок). Belgium immediately became interested in the invention. The Belgium enterprise purchased patent and began mass production of the drug. You cannot found batumin in Ukraine, the government did not support the project, and there are almost none the foreign investments in the country.


10.The invention, the meaning of which seems like an oxymoron born by "British scientists", can bring sport to a new level, and attach to it a far greater number of our citizens - a "candy for weight loss". Rather, the are three kinds of candy ("Drive", "Impulse", "Energy") for different purposes, but their effectiveness is proven by Olympic team of Ukraine and the university handball team. Today you can buy the product in some major cities of the country. The idea belongs to the Doctor of Engineering of commodity department of Luhansk National University named after Shevchenko Lyudmila Senogonova. Nutritionists are predicting the inventor a Nobel Prize if the product proves to be effective to other athletes.

11.Having missed a number of medical discoveries, Ukraine may still be home to a new wonder of the world - the grocery savior of the world. Hanging Gardens of Babylon, that developers of the fund "Novotekh" named "Superklimatron", are a multi-level greenhouse. Egg-shaped form of the structure height of 100 m and an area of less than 2 hectares can provide year-round the fresh harvest at a level that would be able to harvest from 100 hectares of arable land. It should also be remembered that in a greenhouse the crop is under strict control, protected from pests and bad weather. Another important plus of such design is the portability. The structure is easily removed and refitted as an office or hotel, which significantly expands the list of companies, interested "Superklimatronom". The range is from food manufacturers to pharmaceutical companies and the service sector.


Creator of the fund "Novotekh" is a former employee of the Security Service of Ukraine Mykola Beldiy, he is also the inventor of the Ukrainian "perpetuum mobile". The invention is patented in seven countries of the world, and its mode of operation and the device takes dozens of pages. In a new generation of engines there is neither crankshaft, nor cylinder, nor piston-rod, nor classic piston, and the axis of symmetry of working bodies intersect in one direction only. Mini models of motor, pump and compressor working on new principles are testing in the laboratory. Actually, the fund was created in order to build the engine because of the complexity of the design. The result of fund becomes also the wonderful greenhouse.


12. Among the best inventions of 2009 at the competition held annually by "Ukrpatent" (Ukrainian Institute of Industrial Property), Sumy native Vladimir Lyulko showed an interesting mechanical invention. His idea is to complete set of slots in the casino with special trash cans. Plastic bottle is an alternative to metal coins and tokens, a way to get rid of debris. Indeed, in this case for a player unwanted plastic bottle becomes a free shot to try their luck, but for ordinary citizens it is a chance to enrich themselves freely by committing a good deed.

The author invented more than a dozen slots, equipped with not only receivers to empty containers, but also batteries, packs of cigarettes, plastic refill cards. A simple solution is obvious benefits: the environment is in the full benefit, and the waste recycling company does not have to spend money to find trash - the people will carry the garbage for recycling. The company just has to come and pick the garbage up. But this concept appeared shortly before the prohibition of gambling business in Ukraine. But it is hard to find people who want to preserve nature more than to get a quarter. Anyway, the invention of V. Lyulko interested in several businesses.

13. Caring for the environment is not a way to express themselves for idealists, as noted by some aggressive-minded people. It’s elementary: the human seeks to ensure to live in comfort, and it often means a clean habitat – a clean apartment, clothing, air, road... clean TV. Author of nearly a hundred patents Academician Nikolai Osaulenko invented the technology on which made TV a few times reduce the intensity of the radiation.

The two patents for this invention bought Samsung Company - the world's only manufacturer of "bioTVs". However, the inventor does not take into account all the details of the contract, so you cannot found his invention in Ukraine - Koreans do not want to sell it here for a while. Nevertheless, N. Osaulenko invented an improved version of the model sold. The author assures us that because of the use of new material for the cathode, it is enough only 6 watts of energy for TV working. Author doesn’t specify who will be the new manufacturer of the next generation of the ecoTV, but it is certain that the invention will be in every house - his invention is cheaper than even old TV.


14. Ukrainian inventors create not only advanced electronics, but also vehicles. Alexander Berezin created a model of trimaran which according to its specifications at the time of its creation was the best in the world. As is often the case with inventions, model and drawings have repeatedly tried to steal. Not surprisingly, the dishonest businessmen were trying to capture the invention: the boat speed is up to 200 km/h due to the unique shape of hull lines. But the main feature is not speed, but the completely invisibility to radars.

The amazing features of the boat are not limited with stealth-system. The boat is capable to move under water. The hardest job for a shipbuilder, oddly enough, to "drown" the submarine. Berezin coped with this task. The boat construction in Ukraine would cost about $3 million, which is 10 times lower than the cost of similar foreign stealth boats, the armament of other states. In Ukraine, the idea is praised by business leaders and the military. But, as usual, they give no money even for a full-sized prototype.


In 2012, Kharkiv native Alexander Miroschnik was named "The Inventor of the Year" for the invention of "transformer tap switcher". Associate Professor of computerization faculty, the author of several dozen inventions figured out how to secure electronic household devices from power surges without buying bulky and expensive devices.

As we can see, the Ukraine has something to boast about. Its citizens inevitably lead mankind into the future - an easy and safe. Looking at their innovative solutions that are firmly part of the lives of people, you can be sure – this kind of the future is coming.

5. Виконайте вправу на вживання Past Continuous. Поставте дієслова у дужках в правильну форму Past Indefinite або Past Continuous.




Jack … (fall) off the bicycle while he … (ride) it in the fields. – Jack fell off the bicycle while he was riding it in the fields.

1. While Chris … (cook) the dinner, the cell phone … (ring).

2. Last morning … (read) the newspaper in the kitchen when suddenly I … (hear) the scream of my neighbor in the yard.

3. When he … (call) you, you … (watch) your favorite cartoon.

4. Jack … (wait) for Christina when she … (arrive).

5. When the accident … (happen), Peter (not/drive) very fast.

6. Kate … (break) a cup last evening. She … (do) the washing up.

7. Brandon … (take) a photograph of Christen when she … (not/look).

8. Keith and Rachel … (not/go out) because it … (snow) heavily outside.

9. What … (do) your mother yesterday morning in this time.

10. Mike … (see) Elena at the party. She … (wear) a very beautiful dress, it was hard not to see her.

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