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Кабiнет 45

Англiйська мова
Поточний час: 26 лют 2024, 12:58

Часовий пояс: UTC + 2 години

   [ 1 повідомлення ] 
Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: дз 47
ПовідомленняДодано: 30 бер 2015, 08:35 

Зареєстрований: 27 лип 2014, 11:21
Повідомлення: 203
Тема: Тваринництво. Основні визначення та поняття.

Методичні рекомендації:

1. Вивчить нові лексичні одиниці.

2. Прочитати, перекласти тексти, користуючись новою лексикою та дати письмові відповіді на питання до текстів.

3. Виконати лексичні вправи по темі.

Завдання І

Вивчити нову лексику:

one of the distinctive features - одна з характерних рис
live on plants - годуються рослинами
coarse foods - грубі корма
common salt - поварена сіль
due to their compound stomachs - завдяки складовому шлунку
flash-eating - м'ясоїдні
guinea-fowls - цесарки
of mature cows - стиглих корів
depending on - в залежності від
nutritive energy - калорійність
in proportion to - відповідно з
the digestibility being - удобоваримість складає
for heavy milk production - для хорошого надою молока
rich milk - жирне молоко
as economically out-of-doors as in the sty- так же економічно на свіжому
повітрі, як і в свинарнику
at a litter - за один опорос
close confinement - тісний вміст в приміщенні
otherwise anemia will result -інакше наступить анемія
within reasonable limits - у розумних межах
is weaned (from the sow) - відлучений від свиноматки
vast sphere of application - обширна область вживання
well-defined - ясно виражений
lamb crop of the year - річний приплід ягнят
on the one hand - з одного боку
become infested by ticks - заражаються кліщами
dilute preparations - розбавлені препарати
in order to destroy the pests - щоб знищити паразитів
amino acid cystine - аміно-кіслотні цистиди
is chiefly a matter of- в основному залежить від
shortage of food - недоліки кормів
has become settled - встановилась
down and feather of poultry [ˈdɑun ənd ˈfeðər əv ˈpɔu ltri] - пух та пір'я птиці
draft cattle [ˈdrɑ:ft ˈkætəl] - тяглова велика рогата худоба
dual – purpose cattle [ˈdjuəl ˈpə:pəsˈkætəl] – м'ясо- молочна худоба

hog [hɔg] - свиня

barn [b ɑ:n] - сарай
lamb [ˈlæm] - ягня

calve [ˈk ɑ:v] - теля

poultry [ˈp ɔu ltri] - домашня птиця

cowshed [ˈkɑuˌʃed] – корівник

sheep – pen [ˈʃiːp ˈpen] - вівчарня

poultry house - пташник
automatic waterer [ˌɔtəˈmætɪk ˈwɔtərə] –автоматична поїлка

feed trough [ˈfiːd ˈtrɔf] - годівниця
self – feeder - самостійної подачі, самогодівниця, автокормушка

objection [əbˈdʒekʃən] - перешкода
fibre content [‘fibrə kənˈtent] - вміст волокна
roughage [ˈrʌfɪdʒ] - грубі корми
succulent [ˈsʌk ju:lənt] - соковитий

Завдання ІІ

Прочитайте, перекладіть тексти та дайте відповіді на питання до кожного тексту:

Classes of animals


The ordinary domestic animals belong to the large group known as Vertebrata, or animals with a backbone.
Most of the domestic animals suckle their young, hence they are classified as Mammalia. (Mamma is the Latin word for breast). The capability to produce milk is one of the distinctive features of this group.

All domestic animals of the Mammalia are divided into the three main classes: herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous.
Herbivorous animals are those that live chiefly on plants. These are: cattle, deer, camels, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep and rabbits. As they consume coarse foods (leaves and stems of plants) they need considerably larger amount of common salt than is supplied by their usual feed.

The cow, the sheep, the camel, the deer and the goat belong to the ruminants (animals which chew the cud). Due to their compound stomachs they are capable of digesting a large quantity of coarse fibrous material.
Carnivorous (flesh-eating animals) such as cats and dogs, need no additional salt because they live on the bodies of other animals.
A particularly place occupies the domestic fowl (poultry) bred for meat (meat poultry, table poultry, market poultry), and eggs (laying poultry, egg-laying poultry). To the group of domestic fowl (poultry) belong hens, geese, ducks, turkeys, guinea fowls, and some others.
The only insect bred for human food is the bee. Bees supply us with honey and wax. Besides, beekeeping (apiculture) is an important source of raw materials for medical purposes.

Питання до тексту:

1. What large group do the ordinary animals belong to?
2. What is one of the distinctive features of this group?
3. What classes of Mammalia do you know?
4. What domestic animals are herbivorous?
5. What do they live on?
6. Which of the herbivorous belong to the ruminants?
7, What domestic animals are flesh-eating?
8. What do they live on?
9. What do omnivorous animals utilize?
10.What does poultry produce?

The cow


The cow belongs to the class of ruminants. Its value as a domestic animal consists in her ability to consume and digest large quantities of roughage and to convert it into milk and meat for human food.

The cow's stomach has four compartments: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The stomachs of mature cows vary incapacity from 150 to 300 pounds depending on the size of the animal.

A cow's food consists of concentrates and roughage. The concentrates are foods in which the nutritive energy is high in proportion to their weight and bulk, and they are from 75 to 100 per cent digestible. In roughages the nutritive energy is lower, die digestibility being from 30 to 75 per cent.

The concentrates are produced of various kinds of grain, while roughages are whole plants with the exception of the roots. Pasture and silage are usually included into the term roughage. High-producing cows, however, cannot be kept on grain alone. They also cannot be kept on hay alone, because they are not able to eat and digest the enormous bulk of this kind of food which would be necessary to supply the nutritive energy required for heavy milk production. To produce a large supply of rich milk, cows must be not only well fed but also be of good milking qualities.

The cows that are producing milk require a much larger quantity of water than is necessary for growing animals.
The period of gestation in cows is about 40 weeks. The lactation period is the period of milking after each calf, and it usually lasts for about ten months. Dairy cows are milked three times a day and watered twice a day.

Питання до тексту:

1. What class of animals does the cow belong to?
2. What does the value of the cow consist in?
3. How many compartments has the cow's stomach?
4. What does a cow's food consist of?
5. What is the digestibility in concentrates?
6. What are the concentrates produced of?
7. What are roughages?
8. Do pasture and silage also belong to roughage?
9. Can cattle be kept on grain alone?
10.Why can high-producing cows not be kept on hay alone?

The pig


The pig is an omnivorous animal with a simple and small stomach. It requires its food in concentrated form. Pigs grow more rapidly than any other class of farm animals in relation to their weight. The daily ration of a pig should be composed of feeds with a definite proportion of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Pigs thrive in the open air under summer conditions, and they can during warm weather convert their food as economically out-of-doors as in the sty.

The male pig is called a hog and the female pig a sow, the small piglets are often called just pigs.

A pregnant pig usually produces from 6 to 12 at a litter. The act of parturition is called farrowing. On approach of farrowing a sow should be in good condition but not fat. Close confinement prior to farrowing is harmful. Sows suckling litters require somewhat more water. Their rations should be supplied with micro and macro elements otherwise anemia will result.

The fattening of pigs should, within reasonable limits, begin from an early stage. As soon as the litter of newly-farrowed pigs is weaned (from the sow), it should be properly fed on a balanced ration.

Pig-breeding (hog-breeding, hog-raising) gives a vast range of food-stuffs derived from pork. Among them are: bacon, lard, ham, sausage, tinned (canned) pork.
Hog skins are used in producing leather, and bristles also find a vast sphere of application. Even the offals of swine are used, for instance, in sausage producing.

There are a number of pure breeds of pigs, including Black breeds, White breeds, and the Tamworths which are of a golden-red colour. Crosses commonly show the mixed colours of the pure breeds.

Питання до тексту:

1. In what form does the pig require its food?
2. Where do pigs thrive under summer conditions?
3. How is the male pig called?
4. How many piglets does a pregnant sow usually produce at a litter?
5. What is harmful for a sow prior to farrowing?
6. When should the fattening of pigs begin?
7. What food-stuffs does a pig produce?
8. How are hog skins used?
9. Where are the offals of swine used?
10. What pure breeds of pigs do you know?
11. What colour are the Tamworths?
12.What colour do crosses show commonly?

The sheep


Sheep belong to the Genus Ovis, and are generally grouped into: Longwools, Shortwools, and Mountain sheep which have horns. Inside each group there are many well-defined breeds, and an endless variety of crosses between the different pure breeds.

Sheep are kept for the production of mutton and wool. The stomach of the sheep is three times larger than that of the pig.

A male sheep is called a ram on whose fertility largely depends the lamb crop of the year. An in-Iamb sheep is called a ewe and a new-born - a lamb. The period of gestation in sheep lasts 21 weeks. As a rule, ewes should always have access to clean water.
Healthy lambs can withstand bad weather provided the coat dries immediately after birth. If the coat does not dry, losses even among the strong lambs may occur.

Because of the covering of wool sheep can withstand cold temperatures better than cattle. On the one hand wool protects the sheep against bitter cold, but on the other hand owing to the wool, they become infested by ticks and other parasites which they cannot rubb off. In this case they should be dipped periodically in delute preparations of arsenical or carbolic poisions in order to destroy the pests.

Pure wool free from grease is a protein substance containing the particular amino acid cystine in much higher proportion than do other animal and plant proteins. Although the quality of the wool is chiefly a matter of breed and climate, the finest grades of wool are produced in districts of very low rainfall. Shortage of food also limits wool production or reduces its quality.

Sheep are usually shorn between the middle of April and the middle of May, when the weather has become settled.

Питання до тексту:

1. What Genus do sheep belong to?
2. How are they generally grouped into?
3. What are sheep kept for?
4. How is a male sheep called?
5. How is female sheep called?
6. What is a lamb?
7. How long does the period of gestation in sheep last?
8. Why can sheep withstand cold temperatures better than cattle?
9. When are sheep usually shorn?

Завдання ІІІ

Виконайте лексичні вправи по темі:

Складіть антонімічні пари:
unfourable, cheaply, disadvantage,automatically, dry, favourable, increase, advantage, he-at, succulent, directly, digestible, manually, indigestible, cool, decrease, full, indirectly, empty, expensively.

Складіть синонімічні пари:
hog, require, cattle, grade, traffic, sort, due to, need, thank to, access, livestock, entry, milker, pig, milking machine, movement.

Дайте відповіді на питання:
1. What is animal husbandry?
2. Why are farm animals highly important for people?
3. What farm animals do you know?
4. What feeds for livestock do you know?
5. What machines are used in animal husbandry?

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