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Кабiнет 45

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Поточний час: 19 лип 2018, 20:47

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Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: ПИТАННЯ ДО ЗАЛІКУ
ПовідомленняДодано: 14 жовт 2017, 20:32 
Адміністратор

Зареєстрований: 17 черв 2014, 17:23
Повідомлення: 620
ПИТАННЯ ДО ЗАЛІКУ

Зображення

для студентів спеціальності: 5.09010102
«Організація і технологія ведення фермерського господарства» ІV курс
(шифр і назва спеціальності)
Індивідуальна форма навчання

№ Питання Відповідь


ЗображенняҐрунти

1 What are the main components of a fertile soil?
Some good clay and loamy soils are naturally highly fertile, some light sandy soils are naturally poor.

2 What particles does the soil consist of?
It is a mixture of particles of rock, organic materials, living forms, air and water.

3 What does the soil management deal with? Soil management is the science of tillage operations, cropping practices using fertilizers, lime and other treatments conducted on, or applied to.

4 What groups of fertilizers do you know?
The fertilizers are organical and mineral substances which contain elements improving the plants vegetation and the soil fertility. Organical fertilizers are produced at the agricultural enterprises. The mineral fertilizers are produced at the special industrial enterprises.

5 What substances belong to the organical fertilizers?
Manure, decay substance, poultry droppings, peat and green fertilizer belong to the organical fertilizers.

6 Why is manure the most widespread fertilizer?
Manure is the most wide-spread fertilizer. It contains 0.5% of nitrogen, 0.25% of phos-phorus, 0.6% of potassium. The litter manure, half-liquid and liquid manure are of great importance in agriculture. The half-rotten manure is the most effective fertilizer.

7 When do we use the poultry droppings?
The poultry droppings are a valuable organical fertilizer. It is used before the sowing of sugar beets, corn and vegetable crops.

8 What mineral fertilizers do you know?
Mineral fertilizers are divided into two groups: industrial fertilizers and local fertilizers. They belong to the industrial fertilizers. Ashes and lime belong to the local fertilizers.

9 When do farmers use ammonia saltpeter? ( аміачна селітра)
The ammonia saltpetre belongs to the nitrogen fertilizers. It contains 34—35\% of nitrogen. It dissolves in water very easily. The plants absorb it acidifying the soil a little bit. This fertilizer is very effective for the acid soils.

10 When is superphosphate used?
Superphosphate is considered to be the most wide-spread phospho¬rus fertilizer. It is divided into two groups: the simple superphosphate and double superphosphate. The phosphorate flour (фосфоритне борошно) contains 10-38\% of phosphorus. Superphosphate is effective for the carbonate soils. (карбонатні ґрунти).

11 When are lime fertilizers effective?
Lime fertilizers are very effective for the acid soils. Extincted lime is used for the acidity neutralization of the soils. Liming enriches soils with potassium. It is very useful for feed crops, fruits and vegetables.

12 How can soils can be subdivided in respect of texture and also age?
In respect of texture and also age, soils can be subdivided into fine sandy soil, sandy soil, loam soil, sandy-loam soil, silt-loam soil, shale-loam soil, muck soil, podzol soil, limy soil, solonetz soil, chernozem (black earth soil), brown soil, red soil. Soils are usually classified according to the texture of a six- to eight-inch thick surface layer, approximately the "plow layer". Six major texture groups are "sand", " sandy loam", "silt loam", "loam", "clay loam", and "clay". Each of these groups may be subdivided when it is useful to do so.

13 What are the principal elements of soil?
Nitrogen is one of the most important components of soil. The other principal elements of mineral food include sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Apparently, sodium, silicon and manganese are also needed by plants.

14 What does the productiveness of a soil also depend on?
The productiveness of a soil also depends to a great extent on its mechanical properties (especially upon texture and structure) and also on the presence of useful bacteria, the chief function, of which is to help to fix free nitrogen.

Зображення Тваринництво

15 What are domestic animals kept for?
Domestic animals are kept for the production of human food. Besides, the skin, down and feathers of poultry, the wool of sheep, goats and camels are used as raw materials to produce leather, clothing, etc.

16 What animals form the most important group of domestic animals?
The most important group of domestic animals is formed by the cattle. Cattle can be roughly subdivided into draft cattle, dairy cattle, beef cattle and dual-purpose cattle. Draft cattle (oxen, as a rule) have almost everywhere been replaced by agricultural machinery. Dairy cattle (cows) provide dairy products (milk, butter, cream, cheese, etc). Beef cattle are the producer of beef. Dual – purpose cattle give us both milk and beef.

17 What are the important sources in producing human food?
Important sources in producing human food are also sheep breeding, hog raising, rabbit breeding, apiculture, and some other minor branches.

18 What are the main types of sheep breeding?
There are two main types of sheep breeding: for wool and for mutton. There is also a medium breed: the wool-mutton breed.

19 What are provided by poultry?
To poultry belong hens, geese, ducks, turkeys and some other fowls. Poultry provide meat (flesh), eggs, down and feathers.

20 What is feed production?
Feed production is a decisive branch of the cattle-farming. It supplies feeds. Different perennial and annual grasses are cultivated in the fields and pastures.

21 What grasses are included into the range of plants? (сівозміна)
The range of plants consists of the legume and cereal grasses. The common norm yield is about 35 kg/ha.

22 What mineral fertilizers are applied?
The large quantity of the nitrogen fertilizers is applied at the long-flooded pastures. The hay yield of 50 ha needs approximately 75 kg of nitrogen and potassium and 20 kg of phosphorous and calcium. The highest hay yields are harvested with a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers. The phosphorous fertilizers are characterized by a prolonged yield increase.

ЗображенняОрганізація пасіки

23 What is beekeeping?
Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans.

24 What does beekeeper do?
A beekeeper (or apiarist) may keep bees in order to collect honey and beeswax, or for the purpose of pollinating crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary.

25 What is beekeeping practiced for?
Beekeeping was traditionally practiced for the bees' honey harvest, although nowadays crop pollination service (послуги по запиленню врожаю) can often provide a greater part of a commercial beekeeper's income.

26 What hive products do you know?
Hive products are bees' honey, pollen, royal jelly, and propolis, which are also used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, and beeswax, which is used in candle making, cosmetics, wood polish, and for modelling.

27 How is a colony of bees composed?
A colony of bees is composed of a single queen, many workers (infertile females), drones (males), and a brood (eggs, larvae, and pupae).

28 What is the population of colony?
The population of the colony varies according to the seasons. It is important for the colony to have a large population (30,000 to 60,000+ individuals) when there is a lot of forage available, in order to achieve the greatest possible harvest. The population is minimal in the winter (6,000 individuals) in order to reduce the consumption of provisions. The colony should not be too weak, however, because the bees which overwinter have to revive the colony again in the spring. If the population is too small over winter, another problem may be encountered: honey bees need to cluster together in winter in order to maintain the temperature (9 degrees Celsius) required for their survival, and with reduced populations this is much more difficult to achieve.

Зображення Економіка сільського господарства

29 What is agricultural economics?
Agricultural economics is a field of economics dealing with the economic problems associated with agriculture, the efficiency of farm production being one of them and most important. Some other economic problems are intensification and specialization of agricultural production, farm planning and management, labour productivity, prices for farm produce, marketing of farm produce, etc.

30 What is the main indication of the efficiency of a farm? Production cost is the main indication of the efficiency of a farm.

31 What does production cost include?
It includes the value of the means of production to be used in the production process, the remuneration to be paid to the farm labourers and the cost of farm management.

32 What is cost accounting?
For farm enterprises to be more profitable and efficient the cost accounting principle is widely applied now on our farms. It involves operational independence, that is, the head of an enterprise may take independent decisions as to the activities of his enterprise. Due to the introduction of cost accounting system all the farmers have become interested in finding new potentialities for making their enterprises more profitable.

33 What is it necessary to know to understand agricultural economics?
In order to understand agricultural economics it is necessary to know how crops are sown, cultivated, fertilized, and harvested, how livestock are bred, raised, fattened, and sold.

34 What are the main reasons for rising efficiency in agriculture in the developed countries?
In developed countries the productivity in agricultural sector including agriculture and processing of agricultural products is being raised as fast as in economy as a whole. The main reasons for rising efficiency are: a) better agricultural technology; b) better capital inputs, such as machinery; c) achievements in biological sciences.

Зображення Фінансова документація

35 What is accounting in a company?
Work of no company is possible without measuring and recording the financial data concerning its activity. This process is called accounting and the main document of it is called the balance sheet of the company.

36 What does balance sheet consist of?
The balance sheet consists of two parts: assets and liabilities, which should be equal in sum, thus balancing each other.

Зображення Механізація

37 What operations does tillage include?
Tillage practices vary with soil and climatic conditions and the crop that is to be grown. Tillage includes plowing, harrowing and rolling the soil.

38 What machines are used in tilling the soil?
There are some purposes of tilling the soil. They are to improve the aeration and temperature conditions, to produce a firm soil and to control weeds. Different types of plows, harrows and rollers are now available to till the soil.

39 What are some drills equipped with?
Some modern drills are equipped with attachments for seeding legume and grass seed and for spreading fertilizers. So, seed can be sown and fertilizer spread in one operation.

40 What is the final field operation?
Harvesting crops is the final field operation. Combines that harvest and thresh small grains and some other crops have displaced most threshing machines or threshers.

41 What machines are used in root crop and potato harvesting?
Root crops and potatoes are harvested with root lifters and potato diggers respectively.

Зображення Сільськогосподарські машини та їх використання

42 What machines are mounted on a tractor?
Many machines are known to be powered by tractors. Implements such as plows, cultivators and planters may be mounted on a tractor or they may be pulled by a tractor.

43 What self-propelled machines do you know?
An increasing number of farm machines are now self-propelled. These machines are grain combine harvesters, cotton pickers, forage harvesters, and many other specialized farm machines.

44 What operations can the tractor do?
The tractor can pull or push machines, it can supply power to machines from the power-take-off shaft and it can drive machines by means of a belt from a belt pulley.

45 How are tractors classified?
Tractors are classified according to the maximum power that their engine can produce. The crawlers or track laying tractors are large. They are used for heavy operations, such as road making or dam building. Large tracks increase the grip of the tractor on the ground and the crawlers are able to push or pull heavy loads and machines. Wheeled tractors may have mounted implements and machines on them. This is done by the three-point linkage,

46 What can modern farm tractors do?
Modern farm tractors can do various job very effectively. Modern farm tractor can: 1)pull or push machines; 2) operate implements mounted upon it by means of the three-point linkage; 3) transmit power by means of its PTOshaft; 4) drive machines by belt power; 5) transmit power by means of shafts; 6) supply power for different operations; 7) generate electricity.

Зображення Працевлаштування за спеціальністю

47 What are farmers responsible for?
Mixed farmers are responsible for managing all aspects of livestock and crop production as a small enterprise or for self-sufficiency.

48 What knowledge is necessary for farmer?

Health and safety regulations
Necessary health, safety, hygiene and environmental standards and legislation rules in the sector of particular activity.

Environmental legislation in agriculture and forestry
Awareness on environmental legislation, policies, principles relevant for agriculture and forestry. Awareness of the impact on the environment of local agricultural procedures and practices. Means to adjust the production to new environmental regulations and policies.

Livestock reproduction
Understand natural and artificial reproduction techniques, gestation periods and birthing for livestock. Understand the humane destruction of relevant animals in accordance with national legislation.

Crop production principles
Principles in growing crops, the natural cycle, nursing of nature, growth conditions and principles of organic and sustainable production. Quality criteria and requirements of seeds, plants and crop.

Livestock farming systems
The allocation of farming resources in relation to livestock farming and husbandry systems.

Agronomical production principles
The techniques, methods and principles of conventional agronomical production.

Agricultural production principles
Principles and conditions of organic and sustainable agricultural production.

49 What are farmer’s skills?

Conform to health and safety regulations
Carry out all work in accordance with relevant environmental and health and safety legislation, risk assessment requirements and company policies.
Take the necessary health and safety precautions during work including posture the body well, safely operate tools and machinery, and wear the right clothes and protection for the climate.
Supervise hygiene procedures in agricultural settings
Ensure that hygiene procedures in agricultural settings are followed, taking into account the regulations of specific areas of action: livestock, plants, local farm products, etc.
Operate agricultural machinery
Operate motorized agricultural equipment including tractors, balers, sprayers, ploughs, mowers, combines, earthmoving equipment, trucks, and irrigation equipment.

50 What are optional knowledge and skills?
They are managing farm products, manage production enterprise, market farm products, agricultural business management, and manage the health and welfare of livestock. dairy animal


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