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Кабiнет 45

Англiйська мова
 
Поточний час: 22 січ 2022, 19:50

Часовий пояс: UTC + 2 години




   [ 1 повідомлення ] 
Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: Заняття №56
ПовідомленняДодано: 27 квіт 2015, 12:14 
Адміністратор

Зареєстрований: 27 лип 2014, 11:21
Повідомлення: 203
Тема: Лінії елетропередач: повітряні, кабельні. Анотаційний переклад.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Знайти переклад слів та словосполучень у словнику.

2. Прочитати, перекласти текст та зробити лексичні вправи по темі.

3. Повторити граматичний матеріал попереднього заняття та написати анотацію.




Завдання І

Знайдіть переклад слів та словосполучень у словнику, запишіть та вивчіть їх:

an overhead power line [ ən ˌəʊvəˈhed ˈpaʊə laɪn]
to suspend [tə səˈspend]
tubular poles [ˈtjuːbjʊlə pəʊlz]
concrete [ˈkɒŋkriːt]
bare wire conductors [ beə ˈwaɪə kənˈdʌktəz]
to customer [tə ˈkʌstəmə]
urban [ˈɜːbən]
rural [ˈrʊərəl]
to depend on [tə dɪˈpend ɒn]
pylons [ ˈpaɪlɒnz]
considerably [kənˈsɪdərəbli]
guy wires [ ɡaɪ ˈwaɪəz]
to counteract [tə ˌkaʊntəˈrækt]
a grounded cable [ ə ˈɡraʊndɪd ˈkeɪbl̩]
to achieve [tu əˈtʃiːv]



Завдання ІІ

Прочитати, перекласти текст та зробити лексичні вправи по темі.


AN OVERHEAD POWER LINE

An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are generally the lowest-cost method of power transmission for large quantities of electric energy.
Зображення
Towers for support of the lines are made of wood (as-grown or laminated), steel (either lattice structures or tubular poles), concrete, aluminum, and occasionally reinforced plastics. The bare wire conductors on the line are generally made of aluminum (either plain or reinforced with steel, or composite materials such as carbon and glass fiber), though some copper wires are used in medium-voltage distribution and low-voltage connections to customer premises. A major goal of overhead power line design is to maintain adequate clearance between energized conductors and the ground so as to prevent dangerous contact with the line, and to provide reliable support for the conductors, resilient to storms, ice load, earthquakes and other potential causes of damage. Today overhead lines are routinely operated at voltages exceeding 765,000 volts between conductors, with even higher voltages possible in some cases.

Classification by operating voltage

Overhead power transmission lines are classified in the electrical power industry by the range of voltages:
Low voltage (LV) – less than 1000 volts, used for connection between a residential or small commercial customer and the utility.

Medium voltage (MV; distribution) – between 1000 volts (1 kV) and to 69 kV, used for distribution in urban and rural areas.

High voltage (HV; sub-transmission less than 100 kV; sub-transmission or transmission at voltage such as 115 kV and 138 kV), used for sub-transmission and transmission of bulk quantities of electric power and connection to very large consumers.

Extra high voltage (EHV; transmission) – over 230 kV, up to about 800 kV, used for long distance, very high power transmission.

Ultra high voltage (UHV) – higher than 800 kV

Structures for overhead lines take a variety of shapes depending on the type of line. Structures may be as simple as wood poles directly set in the earth, carrying one or more cross-arm beams to support conductors, or "armless" construction with conductors supported on insulators attached to the side of the pole. Tubular steel poles are typically used in urban areas. High-voltage lines are often carried on lattice-type steel towers or pylons. For remote areas, aluminum towers may be placed by helicopters. Concrete poles have also been used. Poles made of reinforced plastics are also available, but their high cost restricts application.

Each structure must be designed for the loads imposed on it by the conductors. The weight of the conductor must be supported, as well as dynamic loads due to wind and ice accumulation, and effects of vibration. Where conductors are in a straight line, towers need only resist the weight since the tension in the conductors approximately balances with no resultant force on the structure.
Зображення
Foundations for tower structures may be large and costly, particularly if the ground conditions are poor, such as in wetlands. Each structure may be stabilized considerably by the use of guy wires to counteract some of the forces applied by the conductors.

Power lines and supporting structures can be a form of visual pollution. In some cases the lines are buried to avoid this, but this "undergrounding" is more expensive and therefore not common.
Зображення
A grounded cable called a static line is sometimes strung along the tops of the towers to provide lightning protection. An optical ground wire is a more advanced version with embedded optical fibers for communication.

Compact transmission lines.
Зображення
A compact overhead transmission line requires a smaller right of way than a standard overhead power line. Conductors must not get too close to each other. This can be achieved either by short span lengths and insulating crossbars, or by separating the conductors in the span with insulators. The first type is easier to build as it does not require insulators in the span, which may be difficult to install and to maintain.
Compact transmission lines may be designed for voltage upgrade of existing lines to increase the power that can be transmitted on an existing right of way.

Low voltage overhead lines

Зображення
Low voltage overhead lines may use either bare conductors carried on glass or ceramic insulators or an aerial bundled cable system. The number of conductors may be anywhere between four (three phase plus a combined earth/neutral conductor - a TN-C earthing system) up to as many as six (three phase conductors, separate neutral and earth plus street lighting supplied by a common switch).
Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains. Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires situated over rail tracks. Feeder stations at regular intervals along the overhead line supply power from the high-voltage grid. For some cases low-frequency AC is used, and distributed by a special traction current network.

Дайте відповіді на питання:
1. What is an overhead power line?
2. What does it consist of?
3. Of what are towers for support of the lines made?
4. Of what are the bare wire conductors on the line made?
5. How overhead power transmission lines are classified?
6. What do you know about the structure of overhead power lines?
7. What is the grounded cable?
8. What do you know about compact transmission lines?
9. How can we use low voltage overhead lines?
10. How are they designed?



Перекладіть речення:

1. Overhead lines are also occasionally used to supply transmitting antennas, especially for efficient transmission of long, medium and short waves.
2. For this purpose a staggered array line is often used.
3. Along a staggered array line the conductor cables for the supply of the earth net of the transmitting antenna are attached on the exterior of a ring, while the conductor inside the ring, is fastened to insulators leading to the high-voltage standing feeder of the antenna.
4. Use of the area below an overhead line is restricted because objects must not come too close to the energized conductors.
5. Overhead lines and structures may shed ice, creating a hazard.
6. Radio reception can be impaired under a power line, due both to shielding of a receiver antenna by the overhead conductors, and by partial discharge at insulators and sharp points of the conductors which creates radio noise.
7. Construction of overhead power lines, especially in wilderness areas, may have significant environmental effects.
8. Environmental studies for such projects may consider the effect of bush clearing, changed migration routes for migratory animals, possible access by predators and humans along transmission corridors, disturbances of fish habitat at stream crossings, and other effects.



Завдання ІІІ

Повторіть як складається анотація (заняття №54)

Складіть анотацію до тексту: "Air cable"
Зображення

An aerial cable or air cable is an insulated cable usually containing all conductors required for an electrical transmission system or a telecommunication line, which is suspended between utility poles or electricity pylons. As aerial cables are completely insulated there is no danger of electric shock when touching them and there is no requirement for mounting them with insulators on pylons and poles. A further advantage is they require less right of way than overhead lines for the same reason. They can be designed as shielded cables for telecommunication purposes. If the cable falls, it may still operate if its insulation is not damaged.
Зображення
As aerial cables are installed on pylons or poles, they may be cheaper to install than underground cables, as no work for digging is required, which can be very expensive in rocky areas.

Aerial cables are mostly used for telecommunication systems or for power transmissions with voltages below 1000 volts. Aerial cable for voltages around 10000 volts have also been built, for the supply of farms, waterworks, transmitters and other facilities outside urban areas. A further common use is the replacement of overhead telecommunication lines, for example, along railway line, by aerial cables as they can be installed on existing poles and make the facility more reliable.

Telecommunication systems running along power lines or aerial tram ways are often built as aerial cables as they can be easily installed on the pylons or tramway support towers. However these cables must be designed for higher forces as span lengths are longer.
As power lines the aerial cable can serve also as ground conductor on the top of the pylon. It can be also installed in form of a separate strand on the conductor. A special method was used at former EVS (now En BW) in Germany until the mid-1980s, where the aerial cable was installed like a garland on the ground conductor or an auxiliary rope.

For reasons of electromagnetic interference aerial cables running along power lines are most often of fibre optic types. As these are dielectric, it is even possible to install them directly in the conductors see optical ground wire.
Aerial cables are also used sometimes for power transmission from the transmitter building to the antenna at radio stations.


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