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Кабiнет 45

Англiйська мова
 
Поточний час: 22 січ 2022, 18:50

Часовий пояс: UTC + 2 години




   [ 1 повідомлення ] 
Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: Заняття №55
ПовідомленняДодано: 27 квіт 2015, 12:13 
Адміністратор

Зареєстрований: 27 лип 2014, 11:21
Повідомлення: 203
Тема: Енергетичні системи, підстанції. Анотаційний переклад.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Знайти переклад слів та словосполучень у словнику.

2. Прочитати, перекласти текст та зробити лексичні вправи по темі.

3. Повторити граматичний матеріал попереднього заняття та написати анотацію.



Завдання І

Знайти переклад слів та словосполучень у словнику:

a substation [ə ˈsʌbsteɪʃn̩ ]
consumer [kənˈsjuːmə]
voltage level [ˈvəʊltɪdʒ ˈlevl̩]
an electrical utility [ən ɪˈlektrɪkl̩ juːˈtɪlɪti]
supervision [suːpəˈvɪʒn̩]
to subsidiary [tə səbˈsɪdɪəri]
circuit breakers [ˈsɜːkɪt ˈbreɪkəz]
capacitor [kəˈpæsɪtə]
to reduce [tə rɪˈdjuːs]
to disjoint [tə dɪsˈdʒɔɪnt]
distribution substation [dɪstrɪˈbjuːʃn̩ ˈsʌbsteɪʃn̩]
number of feeders [ˈnʌmbər əv ˈfiːdəz]
switching substation[ˈswɪtʃɪŋ ˈsʌbsteɪʃn̩]
collector substation [kəˈlektə ˈsʌbsteɪʃn̩]


Завдання ІІ

Прочитати, перекласти текст та зробити лексичні вправи по темі.


Прочитайте та перекладіть текст: «Підстанції»

SUBSTATIONS
Зображення
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels.

Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally substations are unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision and control.
Зображення
A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.
Зображення
Elements of a substation:

1.Primary power lines
2.Ground wire
3.Overhead lines
4.Transformer for measurement of electric voltage
5.Disconnect switch
6.Circuit breaker
7.Current transformer
8.Lightning arrester
9.Main transformer
10.Control building
11.Security fence
12.Secondary power lines

Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations themselves do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation.

Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.

Types

Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications within the power system, the method used to insulate most connections, and by the style and materials of the structures used. These categories are not disjointed; to solve a particular problem, a transmission substation may include significant distribution functions, for example.

Transmission substation
Зображення
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance.

Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small "switching station" may be little more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment.

Distribution substation
Зображення
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a level suitable for local distribution.
Зображення
The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub-transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever is common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 2.4 kV and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. The feeders run along streets overhead (or underground, in some cases) and power the distribution transformers at or near the customer premises.

Switching substation

A switching substation is a substation without transformers and operating only at a single voltage level. Switching substations are sometimes used as collector and distribution stations. Sometimes they are used for switching the current to back-up lines or for parallelizing circuits in case of failure.

A switching substation may also be known as a switchyard, and these are commonly located directly adjacent to or nearby a power station.

Зображення

Дайте відповіді на питання:

1. What is a substation?
2. What do substations transform?
3. How may be substations owned and operated?
4. What do substations include?
5. What equipment do substations have?
6. What are the elements of substation?
7. What are the types of substations?
8. What do you know about transmission (distribution, switching) substations?



Виберіть правильні твердження по тексту:

1. A substation is a part of an electrical instrument.
2. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
3. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between low transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages.
4. The first substations were connected not to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.
5. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network.
6. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation.
7. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage.
8. A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area.
9. Input voltage may be, for example, 200 kV, or whatever is common in the area.
10. A switching substation is a substation without transformers and operating only at a single voltage level.


Розшифруйте абревіатуру:

a.c., a.f., bev., cgs., c.p.s., db, d.c., e.m.f., e.v., i.f., r.f., sq.


Перекладіть речення:

1. Selection of the location of a substation must consider many factors.
2. Sufficient land area is required for installation of equipment with necessary clearances for electrical safety, and for access to maintain large apparatus such as transformers.
3. Where land is costly, such as in urban areas, gas insulated switchgear may save money overall.
4. The site must have room for expansion due to load growth or planned transmission additions.
5. Environmental effects of the substation must be considered, such as drainage, noise and road traffic effects.
6. A grounding (earthing) system must be designed.
7. The total ground potential rise, and the gradients in potential during a fault (called "touch" and "step" potentials), must be calculated to protect passers-by during a short-circuit in the transmission system.
8. The substation site must be reasonably central to the distribution area to be served.
9. In a common design, incoming lines have a disconnect switch and a circuit breaker.
10. In some cases, the lines will not have both, with either a switch or a circuit breaker being all that is considered necessary.



Завдання ІІІ

Повторіть граматичний матеріал щодо складання анотації.

Завдання: складіть анотацію до тексту:

Power system automation
Зображення
Early electrical substations required manual switching or adjustment of equipment, and manual collection of data for load, energy consumption, and abnormal events. As the complexity of distribution networks grew, it became economically necessary to automate supervision and control of substations from a centrally attended point, to allow overall coordination in case of emergencies and to reduce operating costs. Early efforts to remote control substations used dedicated communication wires, often run alongside power circuits. Power-line carrier, microwave radio, fiber optic cables as well as dedicated wired remote control circuits have all been applied to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) for substations. The development of the microprocessor made for an exponential increase in the number of points that could be economically controlled and monitored. Today, standardized communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850 and Mod bus, to list a few, are used to allow multiple intelligent electronic devices to communicate with each other and supervisory control centers. Distributed automatic control at substations is one element of the so-called smart grid.


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