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Кабiнет 45

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Поточний час: 22 січ 2022, 19:47

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Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: Заняття 11 ( 7 семестр)
ПовідомленняДодано: 24 лист 2019, 20:40 

Зареєстрований: 17 черв 2014, 17:23
Повідомлення: 657
Заняття 11 ( 7 семестр)

Тема:Лінії електропередач: повітряні, кабельні. Анотаційний переклад.
Торic:Electricity transmission lines. Annotation.

1. Put down the nouns corresponding to these verbs. Follow the model.

Model: to act - action

to ignore -__________________ to produce____________________

to depend -_________________ to use -_________________

to cost -__________________ to lose -____________________

2. Listen to the record and learn new words. Translate into Ukrainian :

Зображення (Unit 61)


line efficiency _____________________

voltage loss _______________________

power station ______________________


interdependent values _______________________

interconnected sources _______________________

changing power efficiency _______________________


exceedingly high power losses _______________________

exceedingly inefficient energy sources __________________


One can ignore these exceedingly low power losses.___________________

One should take into consideration the interdependence of these values ________

One should not ignore the high cost of these installations________________

3. Read and translate the text “Electric lines and their efficiency”


Listen to the record (Unit 61)

Wires are used to deliver electric power and to interconnect different components of electrical installations. Conductors used for electric wiring are commonly produced of copper and aluminium. Aluminium is widely used nowadays due to its low cost. Copper is also widely used in electrical engineering but its cost is much higher.

Wires connecting the components of various installations may be insulated. They may also be used without insulation. In long wires (longer than 10m), power loss cannot be ignored since it is rather high. Power loss in a line should not exceed a definite value. If this value is exceeded the line becomes inefficient.

One should know that the efficiency of a line is not constant – it may change. The value of the line efficiency depends on the load: the greater the load the lower is the line efficiency. At voltage losses of 2 to 5 per cent the efficiency of a line is 98 – 95 per cent. Protecting devices, fuses and relays are used to protect the circuit against overcurrents and short – circuits.

4. Complete the sentences using the correct variant

1. Aluminium is used due to its / a) high cost. / b) low cost and high efficiency.

2 . Cross-section of different conductors / a) varies. / b) is the same.

3. Power loss can be ignored / a) in short wires. / b) in long wires.

4. A definite value of loss / a) can be exceeded./ b) should not be exceeded.

5. Electric lines nowadays are / a) efficient. / b) inefficient.

6. Installations are protected / a) by switches./ b) by fuses.

5. Complete these sentences using while.

1. The cost of aluminium is comparatively low while ....

2. In a short length of wire power loss is extremely low while ....

3. The greater the load the lower is the efficiency of the line ....

6. Answer these questions:

1. Why is aluminium widely used nowadays?

2. Is its cost very low or comparatively low?

3. What is the cross-section of copper conductors?

4. May one ignore power loss in short wire? Why?

5. What does the efficiency of a line depend on?

6. What are fuses used for?

7. When does a line become inefficient?

7. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. When electric energy is produced at the power station, it is to be trans¬mitted over electric wires to the consumer.

2. Wire conductors offer resistance to the current flow; the longer the wire, the greater is its resistance to the current flow.

3. Accordingly, the higher the offered resistance, the greater are the heating losses in the wire.

8. Find in the column B English equivalents to Ukrainian words.

1. area / a. мережа

2. distance / b. шина

3. network / c. шнур

4. support / d. споживання енергії

5. cord / e. опора

6. bus / f. висловлювати

7. enterprise / g. центр розподілу

8. to term / h. розподіляти

9. length of transmission lines / i. площа

10. power consumption / j. що стосується

11. distribution centre / k. довжина ліній електропередачі

12. as to / l. відстань

13. to distribute / m. підприємство

9. Put down the Ukrainian for:

interdependent city areas __________________________________

interacting underground lines_______________________________

interconnected overhead lines_______________________________

transmitting power lines ___________________________________

transmission and distribution lines ___________________________

overhead lines ___________________________________________

step-down transformer _____________________________________

indoor lines ______________________________________________

underground lines__________________________________________

10. Read and translate the text “Transmission Lines”

Зображення Listen to the record (Unit 61)


A power system is an interconnection of electric power stations by high voltage power transmission lines. Nowadays the electricity is trans¬mitted over long distances and the length of transmitting power lines varies from area to area.

A wire system is termed a power line in case it has no parallel branches and a power network in case it has parallel branches.

According to their functions, power lines and networks are subdivided into transmission and distribution lines.

Transmission lines serve to deliver power from a station to distribu¬tion centres. Distribution lines deliver power from distribution centres to the loads.

Lines are also classed into: 1) overhead; 2) indoor; 3) cable (under-ground).

Overhead lines include line conductors, insulators, and supports. The conductors are connected to the insulators, and these are connected to the supports. The greater the resistance, the higher are the heating losses in the conducting wires. In order to reduce the losses, a step-down trans¬former can be used.

Indoor lines include conductors, cords, and buses. The conductor may include one wire or a combination of wires not insulated from one an¬other. They deliver electric current to the consumers.

As to underground lines, they are used in city areas. Accordingly, they are used in cities and towns, and in the areas of industrial enterprises.


11. Complete these sentences using the correct variant.

1. Electric power is transmitted

a) by electric lines.

b) by power networks.

2. Lines are divided into

a) overhead and underground.

b) overhead, indoor and underground.

3. An overhead line includes

a) conductors and supports.

b) conductors, insulators and supports.

4. The insulators are connected

a) to the buses.

b) to the supports.

5. Conductors consist of

a) bare wire.

b) insulated wire.

6. Underground lines are used

a) in cities.

b) in areas of enterprises.

c) in agricultural areas.

12. Learn new words.

danger [ˈdeɪn(d)ʒə] - небезпека

strength [streŋθ] - сила

earth [əː θ] - заземлення, земля

ground - земля, ґрунт

dead [ded] - виключений

dangerous [ˈdeɪn(d)ʒ(ə)rəs] - небезпечний

strong - сильний, яскравий (про світло)

to save - рятувати

to disappear - щезати

to appear - зявлятися

live [laiv] - під напругою

dry - сухий

wet - вологий

13. Answer these questions:

1. By what means is electric power system transmitted?

2. Which system has no parallel branches?

3. Into what groups are all the transmitting lines classed?

4. What components does an overhead line have?

5. What elements do conductors consist of?

6. In what areas are overhead (underground) lines used?

14 . Put down the corresponding nouns. Form nouns from these adjectives and translate them into Ukrainian.

Model: wide - width

strong -___________________ broad -

long - ____________________ high -

15. Put down the Ukrainian for:

under voltage______________________

under 20 V ._______________________

over 30 V _______________________

the power is on ____________________

the power is off_____________________

great strength______________________

dry air ___________________________

dead conductor_____________________

live conductors ____________________

16. Choose the suitable words and translate the sentences:

1. The danger of electric shock (appears, disappears) when the conductor becomes(live, dead).

2. Current passes through faulty (earthed, unearthed) part of installations when the power is on.

3. Low accuracy of measurement is (an advantage, a disadvantage) of the measuring device.

4. The danger of electric shock (increases, decreases) in the wet and hot atmosphere.

5. No current flows through a (dead, live) conductor.

17. Fill in using the verbs to detect, to appear, to disappear, to decrease:

1. When resistance increases, the risk of electric shock ....

2. Faults in electric installations are ... by means of special devices.

3. Electric power... only on live conductors with power on.

4. When the device is switched off electric power ....


18. Read the text “ELECTRIC SHOCK SAFETY ELECTRIC SYSTEM” and do some exercises.

The strength of current depends on both the voltage and the resistance in a circuit. A current of 50 mA is dangerous for a man and a current of 100 mA and higher is lethal.


Contact with a grounded motor frame

Earthing system serves to protect attending personnel from electric shocks when voltage appears on parts that are normally dead. The risk of an electric shock decreases with decreasing voltage. In wet and hot atmosphere the risk of electric shock increases. Safe voltage for circuits used in dry atmosphere is under 36 V.

When the power is on, contacts with live conductors are dangerous for life. Thus, measures are taken to protect attending personnel from contacts with live parts of installations under voltage.

The danger of an electric shock disappears provided the metal parts of installations under voltage are connected with ground by means of safety earthing.

Connecting to ground is made by means of earthing electrodes which are connected directly with ground.

The insulation resistance of any installation should be regularly controlled by means of measuring devices. The faulty parts should be detected, eliminated, and replaced by new ones.

18.1. Complete the sentences using the correct variant:

1. Earthing system serves

a) as protection from an electric shock.

b) as connection with ground.

2. Voltage appears on

a) dead parts.

b) live parts.

3. Contact with live conductors is

a) dangerous.

b) safe.

4. Connection to ground is made

a) by means of wire conductors.

b) by means of earthing electrodes.

5. Danger of an electric shock

a) is earthed,

disappears if the frame b) is unearthed.

18.2. Complete the sentences using while.

1. The insulation resistance of a faulty unearthed frame is extremely low..

2. Danger of an electric shock disappears when the faulty parts are earthed....

3. One should work on the circuit when the power is off. One should not work on the circuit when the power is....

4. Contact with dead conductors is safe....

5. In dry air the risk of an electric shock decreases....

18.3. Answer these questions:

1. What does an earthing system serve for?

2. What parts are termed dead (live)?

3. In what air does the risk of an electric shock decrease?

4. By what means is connection to ground made?

5. What does an electric shock result from?

6. Is a current of 50 mA dangerous for a man?

7. Is wet and hot atmosphere dangerous for the attending personnel?

8. Does the risk of an electric shock decrease with increasing current?

19. Read the text and write four questions about it.

A man can get an electric shock when he comes into contact with the electric fish. One of this kind is found in the tropical waters of South America: it is the electric eel. Small electric eels, one inch long, give a small shock. When the fish is 6 inches long its internal battery gives as much as 200 volts. A very big fish can generate 600 volts! When it is short-circuited, a current of one ampere can be obtained. A two-meter long eel can light a dozen 50 watt lamps. The eel's head is positively charged and the opposite end is negatively charged.

20. Read the text “Transmission of electric power” and write the annotation.


Анотаційний переклад (Annotation)


Petrov, Ivan. Myths of Television. The Molod Ukrainy, December 12, 2012

1. Вступ. У вступі повідомляється головна думка статті.Він ширший, ніж у реферативному перекладі,

e.g. The author explains how television contradicts ideas commonly believed by most people, using specific examples seen on television, such as assassination of John F. Kennedy, to demonstrate his point. His examples contradict such truisms as “seeing is believing”, “a picture is worth a thousand words”, and “satisfaction is its own reward”. Petrov uses logical argument to support his ideas and does not refer to any previous works on the topic.

2. Основна частина ВІДСУТНЯ!

3. Висновки. Кому буде цікавий даний матеріал. Тобто на кого розрахована стаття.

e.g. The article will be of interest for..

The article is aimed at…

The article is intended for …

The article is targeted at…

Transmission of electric power

Electric power is generated at power plants and it must be transmitted to other parts of the country. Thick wires carry electric power over long distances. The wires are not always made of copper, often they are made of other metals.

A number of wires put together form one thick cable. A cable consists of a number of wires put together and a pair consists of two insulated conductors forming a metallic circuit. Thus the basic transmission element of communications is a long transmission line. A cable is the main part of this long transmission line. Nowadays the electricity is transmitted over long distances and the length of transmitting power lines varies from area to area.

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