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Кабiнет 45

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Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: Заняття 9 ( 7 семестр)
ПовідомленняДодано: 18 лист 2019, 17:57 
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Зареєстрований: 17 черв 2014, 17:23
Повідомлення: 657
Заняття 9 ( 7 семестр)

Тема:Теплові, атомні та гідроелектростанції. Анотаційний переклад.
Торic:
Atomic power stations. Annotation.

1. Listen to the record and learn new words.

Зображення https://vk.com/club129211035(Unit 59)

determines the pace - визначає темп

technological advance - науково-технічні напрацювання

conventional sources - традиційні джерела

taming of the fire - приборкання вогню



2. Read and translate the text “Sources of power. Engineering today”

Зображення Listen to the record https://vk.com/club129211035 (Unit 59)

Power in its perfect form - electric power - determines the pace of the technological advance of mankind.

The numerous machines, mechanisms and automatic devices functioning in industry, agriculture, transport and everyday life depend upon power production. In the twentieth century, mankind’s progress depends not only on electricity output, but also on the efficiency of application of electricity in all spheres of the national economy.

The extensive consumption of electricity and its key role in developing the productive forces is accounted for by its high efficiency and huge advantages over other types of energy. It is the cleanest, most universal and efficient. Electricity may be transmitted over long distances. It is easily distributed among numerous consumers, or on the contrary, can be concentrated into gigantic capacities. Electricity has a revolutionizing effect on machinery and technology in all spheres of economy. This accounts for the priority given to the accelerated development of electricity all over the world.

For quite a long time man has been using wind, water and other conventional sources for producing electric power.

Beginning with the taming of the fire man has been continually looking for new sources of energy. First, there was firewood; then came coal. In the 20th century oil and natural gas began to be used on a large scale. Now man has discovered a source of heat and light millions of times more effective: one gram of nuclear fuel is equivalent to several tons of coal or gas. World reserves of nuclear fuel (including lean ores) exceed manifold the reserves of mineral fuels. Therefore we often say that our time is the beginning of the age of the atomic power. Today the application of the atomic power to generate electricity is becoming increasingly broader. It is the greatest potential capable of meeting mankind’s growing requirements in electricity. Natural fuels like coal, gas, oil are being drained rapidly. Nuclear and later thermonuclear energy will be decisive in energy supply.

That’s why the problem of using atomic power for production of electricity is of great interest, and scientists in different countries give much attention to it.

The world’s first experimental atomic power station was put into operation in 1954. Its capacity was nothing extraordinary (five thousand kilowatts), but it started a new stage in the peaceful use of atomic power.

With time going on, specialists’ experience is growing and reactors are becoming more specialized, bigger and more efficient. The atomic power plants and nuclear reactors of various types, which have been built and are being built, may differ considerably from one another. Power generated by atomic stations may be cheaper than that generated by stations burning oil or coal from the Donbas, if only we pay attention to the problem of reliability and safety as regards people and environment. Otherwise, as the Chernobyl catastrophe shows, the nuclear energy may be too expensive.

Atomic power stations are ecologically cleaner than the traditional fuel-burning stations, if technical and technological requirements are strictly observed.

The successful development of atomic power engineering is a key factor in further raising power production.

The prospects of atomic power generation become virtually unlimited with the creation of thermonuclear power stations, fast-breeder reactors and direct transit (nation of atomic power into electricity.

However, after the Chernobyl catastrophe it became necessary to reside and reduce the programmes of the development of atomic power engineering in Ukraine.



3. Answer the questions.

1. What do numerous machines, mechanisms and automatic devices functioning in industry, agriculture, transport and everyday life depend upon?

2. What does mankind’s progress depend upon in the twentieth century?

3. What conventional sources for producing electric power do you know?



4. Find in the column B English equivalents to Ukrainian words.


1. thermonuclear power stations / a. проблема надійності і безпеки

2. nuclear energy / b. мирне використання

3. put into operation / c. ядерне паливо

4. problem of reliability and safety / d. реактор на швидких нейтронах

5. peaceful use / e. вироблення електроенергії

6. electricity output / f. ключовий фактор

7. productive forces / g. термоядерні електростанції

8. nuclear fuel / h. строго дотримується

9. energy supply / i. продуктивні сили

10. key factor / j. ядерна енергії

11. strictly observed / k. практично необмежені

12. virtually unlimited / l. енергопостачання

13. fast-breeder reactor / m. введено в експлуатацію



5.Translate these words. Mind the meanings of prefixes and suffixes.

extraordinary, peaceful, strictly, reliability, safety, considerably, successful, unlimited, virtually, atomic, reduce, reliability, increasingly, numerous.



6. Write these words into the table according parts of speech.

safety, considerably, successful, virtually, atomic, catastrophe, reliability, increasingly, station, operation, kilowatts, application, different, much, several, firewood, lean, bigger, extraordinary, mineral, fuel, everyday, life.

Noun - torque

adjective - great

adverb - absolutely



7. Read about advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power and do some exercises after reading.

Advantages of nuclear power

The generation of electricity through nuclear energy reduces the amount of energy generated from fossil fuels (coal and oil). Less use of fossil fuels means lowering greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and others).

Currently, fossil fuels are consumed faster than they are produced, so in the next future these resources may be reduced or the price may increase becoming inaccessible for most of the population.

Another advantage is the required amount of fuel: less fuel offers more energy. It represents a significant save on raw materials but also in transport, handling and extraction of nuclear fuel. The cost of nuclear fuel (overall uranium) is 20% of the cost of energy generated.


Зображення

It's an alternative to fossil fuels, so the consumption of fuels such as coal or oil is reduced. This reduction of coal and oil consumption benefits the situation of global warming and global climate change. By reducing the consumption of fossil fuels we also improve the quality of the air affecting the disease and quality of life.

Disadvantages of nuclear power

We've previously discussed the advantage of using nuclear energy to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Organizations often use this argument in favor of nuclear energy but it's a partial truth. Much of the consumption of fossil fuels is due to road transport, used in heat engines (cars, trucks, etc.). Savings in fossil fuel for power generation is fairly low.


Зображення

Despite the high level of sophistication of the safety systems of nuclear power plants the human aspect has always an impact. Facing an unexpected event or managing a nuclear accident we don't have any guarantee that decisions we took are always the best. Two good examples are Chernobyl and Fukushima.

The Chernobyl nuclear accident is, by far, the worst nuclear accident in the history. Different wrong decisions during the management of the nuclear plant caused a big nuclear explosion.

Referring to the Fukushima nuclear accident, the operations done by the staff were highly questionable. Fukushima nuclear accident is the second worst accident in the history.

One of the main disadvantages is the difficulty in the management of nuclear waste. It takes many years to eliminate its radioactivity and risks.

The constructed nuclear reactors have an expiration date. Then, they've to be dismantled, so that main countries producing nuclear energy could maintain a regular number of operating reactors. They've to build about 80 new nuclear reactors during the next ten years.

Nuclear plants have a limited life. The investment for the construction of a nuclear plant is very high and must be recovered as soon as possible, so it raises the cost of electricity generated. In other words, the energy generated is cheap compared to the cost of fuel, but the recovery of its construction is much more expensive.

Nuclear power plants are objectives of terrorist organizations.

Nuclear power plants generate external dependence. Not many countries have uranium mines and not all the countries have nuclear technology, so they have to hire both things overseas.

Current nuclear reactors work by fission nuclear reactions. These chain reactions is generated in case control systems fail, generating continuous reactions causing a radioactive explosion that would be virtually impossible to contain.

Probably the most alarming disadvantage is the use of the nuclear power in the military industry. The first use of nuclear power was the creation of two nuclear bombs dropped on Japan during World War II. This was the first and the last time that nuclear power was used in a military attack. Later, several countries signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but the risk that nuclear weapons could be used in the future will always exist.

Advantages of nuclear fusion versus nuclear fission


Currently the generation of electricity in nuclear reactors is done by nuclear fission reactions. For the moment, nuclear fusion is not valid to generate electric power. Once developed, if nuclear fusion is really practicable, it will provide great advantages over nuclear fission:

• Virtually inexhaustible sources of fuel.

• No accidents in the reactor due to the chain reactions that occur in fissions.

• The waste generated will be much less radioactive.



7.1. Write the sentences into two columns. Take into account advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power.

Зображення advantages

Зображенняdisadvantages

1. The use of the nuclear power in the military industry.

2. Different wrong decisions during the management of the nuclear plant caused a big nuclear explosion.

3. The difficulty in the management of nuclear waste.

4. It represents a significant save on raw materials.

5. Nuclear power plants are objectives of terrorist organizations.

6. The investment for the construction of a nuclear plant is very high.

7. A nuclear power plant is generating electricity for almost 90% of annual time.

8. The cost of nuclear fuel (overall uranium) is 20% of the cost of energy generated.

9. This reduction of coal and oil consumption benefits the situation of global warming and global climate change.

10. By reducing the consumption of fossil fuels we also improve the quality of the air affecting the disease and quality of life.



7.2. Find antonym pairs.

advantages, internal, hot, disadvantages, possible, lie, more, low, cold, supply, consume, less, impossible, cheap, external, never, high, truth, expensive, safety, dangerous, always.



7.3. Translate the sentences with modal verbs or their equivalents.

1. The risk that nuclear weapons could be used in the future will always exist.

2. Not many countries have uranium mines and not all the countries have nuclear technology, so they have to hire both things overseas.

3. The main countries producing nuclear energy could maintain a regular number of operating reactors.

4. Currently, fossil fuels are consumed faster than they are produced, so in the next future these resources may be reduced or the price may increase becoming inaccessible for most of the population.

5. The investment for the construction of a nuclear plant is very high and must be recovered as soon as possible, so it raises the cost of electricity generated.




8. Read the text “Nuclear energy” and write the annotation.


Зображення

Анотаційний переклад (Annotation)

Заголовок:

Petrov, Ivan. Myths of Television. The Molod Ukrainy, December 12, 2012


1. Вступ. У вступі повідомляється головна думка статті.Він ширший, ніж у реферативному перекладі,

e.g. The author explains how television contradicts ideas commonly believed by most people, using specific examples seen on television, such as assassination of John F. Kennedy, to demonstrate his point. His examples contradict such truisms as “seeing is believing”, “a picture is worth a thousand words”, and “satisfaction is its own reward”. Petrov uses logical argument to support his ideas and does not refer to any previous works on the topic.


2. Основна частина ВІДСУТНЯ!

3. Висновки. Кому буде цікавий даний матеріал. Тобто на кого розрахована стаття.

e.g. The article will be of interest for..

The article is aimed at…

The article is intended for …

The article is targeted at…



Nuclear energy

Nuclear power gives us about 17% of the world's electricity. Some countries produce more nuclear power than others. France, for example, gets about 75% of its energy from nuclear power plants, the USA only 15%. Many countries, like Austria, don't have any nuclear energy at all.

The energy of atoms

Nuclear energy comes from the energy inside each atom. Atoms are made up of a nucleus with protons and neutrons—and electrons which revolve around the nucleus like the earth goes around the sun.

Nuclear fission

An atom's nucleus can be split apart. When this is done, a lot of energy is released. Albert Einstein, the world's most famous scientist, said that you can get a lot of energy out of a small number of atoms. When it is let out slowly, you can use this energy to produce electricity, but if you let it out all at once, it can cause a great explosion—like in an atomic bomb.

In a nuclear power station uranium atoms are split apart to create energy. Uranium can be found in rocks on earth, but only a special form of uranium—U 235—can be used to make energy. A pound of uranium has the same energy as about 250 000 litres of petrol.

Chain reaction

In a nuclear reactor free neutrons hit a uranium atom and split it. New neutrons are set free and when they run into other uranium atoms they split them again. When this continues over and over again, you call it a chain reaction.

Control rods are put into the reactor so that the chain reaction doesn't go on so fast. The chain reaction also gives off heat energy. This heat is used to make water hot and produce steam. The steam turns a turbine to generate electricity.

When parts of atoms hit each other they also become radioactive, which is very dangerous if it doesn't stay in the reactor.

Inside a power plant

A nuclear power plant must be safe; otherwise radiation could get into the air. They have containment - a building around it that is made of concrete and steel. In the core of the reactor uranium is formed into long rods which are put into water. This water cools the rods when they get too hot.

Control rods are also put into the core. They take up the neutrons and control the chain reaction. They can be raised or lowered into the core. If you raise them the chain reaction goes on quicker, the core gets hotter and more energy is produced. If you lower them they absorb free neutrons and the chain reaction is slowed down.

Dangers of nuclear energy

Nuclear power plants have advantages because they produce electricity in a clean way. But there are also many problems:

• Natural uranium cannot be used in power plants. You have to enrich it. This costs a lot of money and is not good for our environment.

• There is the danger of nuclear explosions. The explosion at Chernobyl in 1986 blew up the rector's containment and tons of radioactive dust was blown into the atmosphere. Many people were killed and millions around the power station had to leave their homes.

• Used uranium stays radioactive for thousands of years. There is no way to store it safely.

• Transporting uranium is very dangerous.

Nuclear fusion

Fusion is the opposite of fission. The nuclei of small atoms are joined to make one bigger atom. The sun uses nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms to produce light and heat.

Fusion is better than fission because it doesn’t create that much radiation and you can use water as fuel.

Nuclear waste

When the uranium in the core of a reactor is used up, you have to take it out. In some cases uranium can be recycled and used again. If you reprocess uranium you can make another dangerous product—plutonium, which is used to make atomic bombs.

But even though uranium can be used again it finally has to be stored safely. Nuclear waste remains radioactive for thousands of years. Even putting it deep into a mountain would not be completely safe.

The future

In the 1950s and 60s we thought that nuclear power was a clean and cheap form of energy. The energy companies thought that nuclear energy would replace coal, oil and gas.

But as time went on and disasters in Three Mile Island and in Chernobyl happened, people around the world saw nuclear energy as a danger. Some countries have already stopped their reactors completely and other are shutting them down in the near future.

The world's worst nuclear disaster — what happened at Chernobyl

On 26th April 1986 the world's worst nuclear disaster took place at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the northern Ukraine. One of the four reactors exploded because the operators were very careless about safety during a routine test. The explosion blasted a large hole through the roof of the building. Tons of radioactive materials were blown up to a height of about 1km. There was also a big fire in the station.

About 100 million curies of radiation escaped from the station into the atmosphere. Most of it fell on the farmland of Belarus and the Ukraine. A lot of fallout also drifted westwards to northern and central Europe.

The people of Chernobyl were exposed to radiation about 100 times greater than from the bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima. Since the accident, many hundred thousand people have become ill; a lot of them have died of cancer or other diseases.

Over 400,000 people had to leave their homes as a result of the explosion. The area around Chernobyl today is a radioactive desert and nobody is allowed to live there.

The population of the Ukraine and Belarus is living in constant danger because the water is still poisoned and the ground on which they plant crops is still radioactive. The children are not allowed to walk in forests, play in parks or pick wild flowers.


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