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Кабiнет 45

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Поточний час: 22 січ 2022, 20:56

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Автор Повідомлення
 Заголовок повідомлення: Заняття 1 ( 7 семестр)
ПовідомленняДодано: 19 жовт 2019, 18:46 

Зареєстрований: 17 черв 2014, 17:23
Повідомлення: 657
Заняття № 1 ( 7 семестр)

Тема: Оптоелектронні напівпровідникові прилади. Службові слова. Торic. Optoelectronics. Structural Parts of Speech.

1. Read and translate the text “Optoelectronics”

1. Зображення Listen to the record Зображення

Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. In this context, light often includes invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared, in addition to visible light. Optoelectronic devices are electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducers, or instruments that use such devices in their operation. Electro-optics is often erroneously used as a synonym, but is a wider branch of physics that concerns all interactions between light and electric fields, whether or not they form part of an electronic device.

Optoelectronics is based on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, especially semiconductors, sometimes in the presence of electric fields.

Photoelectric or photovoltaic effect, used in:

photodiodes (including solar cells)




integrated optical circuit (IOC) elements

Photoconductivity, used in:


photoconductive camera tubes

charge-coupled imaging devices

Stimulated emission, used in:

injection laser diodes

quantum cascade lasers

Lossev effect, or radiative recombination, used in:

light-emitting diodes or LED


Photoemissivity, used in

photoemissive camera tube

Important applications of optoelectronics include:


Optical fiber communications

2. See the presentation on theme: "Optoelectronics” and do the exercise. Open the brackets. Use the necessary


1. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic (device/devices) that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

2. Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that is (visible/invisible) to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight.

3. Visible light has (wavelength/waves) in a range from about 380 to about 740 nm, with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz.

4. A semiconductor is a (soft/solid) material that has electrical conductivity in between a conductor and that of an insulator.

5. LEDs are semiconductor p-n (junctions/junctions) that under forward bias conditions can emit radiation by electroluminescence in the UV, visible or IR spectrum regions.

3. Answer the questions in English.

1. What is optoelectronics?

2. What does light often include?

3. What is optoelectronics based on?

4. Give the initial form of the following words.

applications, photomultipliers, used, considered, includes, wider, concerns, interactions, including.

5. Change sentences into the Active Voice. Use the model.


T.: Human-like thinking is done by electronics.

St.: Electronics does human-like thinking.

1. The periodic Law was created by D.I. Mendeleyev.

2. In most cases, an electric current is described as a flow of electric charges along a conductor.

3. The nucleus is composed of neutrons and protons.

4. Great quantities of energy are imprisoned in the nuclei of atoms.

6. Find synonyms.

A. effort (n), magnitude (n), steady (a), radiation (n), nearly (adv), develop (v), provide (v), begin (v), transparent (a), increase (v).

B. value (n), clear (a), start (v), emission (n), almost (adv), work out (v), give (v), attempt (n), stable (a), grow (v).

7. Read the text. Write English equivalents to Ukrainian words in brackets.

The first laser was (винаходити) in I960 by the American Theodore Meiman. A laser is a machine for making and concentrating light waves into a very intense beam. The letters LASER stand for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The light made by a laser is much more intense than ordinary light. With ordinary light, all light waves are of different lengths. With lasers, all the light waves are of the same length and this (збільшувати) in intensity.

To understand what laser is, one has to (розуміти) how light is (генерувати). Light comes from the electrons, which surround the nucleus of every normal atom. When the atom is in its unexcited state the electrons which (оточувати) the nucleus are in their normal energy levels. In a laser, the electrons are (збуджувати) to a high energy level. As the electrons fall back from their excited state to their normal state, they give off energy. This energy is given off as light, which can be (бачити).

The common (поширений) laser is helium-neon laser. In the laser tube there is a mirror, and at the other end there is a partial mirror. The electrons (отримувати) energy from a power supply and (ставати) excited. They (віддавати) off energy as light. This light is (віддзеркалювати) by the mirror at one end of the tube. It can only escape through the partial mirror at the other end of the tube.

8. Define the function the ending –es in the sentences: a) predicate in Present Indefinite (3rd Person) b) noun in Plural form. Translate the sentences.

1. The cloud of electrons forms in the space between cathode and plate. This cloud is called space charge.

2. At low plate voltages the negative space charge limits the flow of electrons.

3. A small variation of the signal voltage on the grid results la a large variation of the plate current through the tube. This means that amplification takes place.

4. This audio system consists of three voltage amplifiers.

9. Read the material “Structural parts of speech” and do some exercises.

(1) the preposition (in, on, below, under, between ~ place and direction; time~ after, before, till, until, at; abstract relations ~ by, with, because of, with a view)

The preposition is a structural part of speech which denotes the relations between objects and phenomena. It shows the relations between a noun or a pronoun and other words.

(2) the conjunction

The conjunctionis a structural part of speech which denotes connections between objects and phenomena. It connects parts of the sentence, clauses, and sentences.

As to their function conjunctions fall under two classes:

coordinating(coordinating conjunctions join coordinate clauses in a compound sentence or homogenous parts in a simple sentence, or homogeneous subordinate clauses in a complex sentence, or independent sentences) ~ and, as well as, neither…nor, not only…but also, or, either…or, but, while, whereas, so, for;

subordinating(subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate (dependent) clause) to a principal clause) ~that, if, while, though, as if.

(3) the particle (only, just, but, barely, merely, solely, simply, still, just, yet, quite, even, too, also, not (negative particle), never )

The particle is a structural part of speech giving modal or emotional emphasis to other words or groups of words or clauses.

(4) the article

The article is the structural part of speech used with nouns. There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite article (a, an) and the definite article (the).

9.1. Find structural parts of speech in the sentences. Translate.

1. The stronger is the acid; the greater is the tendency to lose protons. 2. The faster the object moves, the greater is the air resistance.

3. The bigger the mass, the bigger the weight of the body.

4. Most elements exist in different forms.

5. Iron is the most important material in industry.

6. Most of all the scientists investigated radioactive elements.

7. We need mostly the polymers which withstand high temperatures.

8. The lower the temperature, the more easily the gas is liquefied.

9.2. Do the quiz online. Check your knowledge.

Parts of speech

Here is a grammar quiz which will deepen your understanding of Parts of Speech. This is both a game and a test. I know you'll enjoy this. Choose one from the options given after each question. Think carefully before you answer.

1. They always speak the truth to me.

What part of speech is the word 'speak' in the sentence above?

2. She frequently writes articles for that paper.

Where would you insert the word 'short' in this sentence?
between she and frequently
between frequently and writes
between writes and articles
between articles and for

3. Those boys answered all the questions smartly in class this morning.

What word would you use as a substitute for the words 'those boys'?

4. Will you please water the plants?

What part of speech is the word 'water' in this sentence?

5. She always smiled ________ she was not happy.

Which of the following conjunctions would you use to fill in the blank?

6. We ________ visit our sister in Kerala.

Which one of the following words would you use to fill in the blank in the above sentence?

7. Which part of speech was the correct answer in number 6 above?


8. I bought a pen yesterday.

If I want to remove the word 'pen,' which of the following words is qualified to take its place?

9. taught / school / he /in / us / English / to

Which of the following is the best rearrangement of the words given above?
He to us taught in English school.
He taught English to us in school.
Taught us is he English to school.
Us taught to he English in school.

10. The little lamb followed Mary to school.

The words 'lamb', 'Mary' and 'school' belong to the same part of speech. Which?


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